Cross-country skiing is a popular sport that has many fans worldwide. Usually the competitions are held in the countryalong a specially prepared race track, and the athletes can choose the classical style or the free style of skiing. Cross-country skiing is a cyclical sport.
Classical style, skate style
Modern skis are absolutely identical to each other, and in the Middle Ages they were significantly different. One was intended for sliding, and the other — for pushing against the snowy surface. The former was longer, and the latter was shorter. The first was made from a sharpened piece of wood, the second was covered with animal skin. Understandably, these skis were quite difficult to ride on. They were used not for riding but for passing over deep snow.
Throughout the world, skiing has become one of the most popular winter sports. The first skis were used by the ancient hunters in the northern countries. They looked like modern snowshoes.
The oldest written evidence of the use of sliding skis dates back to the 6th-7th century AD. In 960, skis are mentioned as equipment for training the court dignitaries of Norway. The first use of the word "skis" in Russia dates back to the 12th century.
Interest in skiing as a sport was shown by the Norwegians. In 1733, Hans Emahusen issued an instruction on the ski training of troops with a sports focus. In 1767, competitions were held in all types of skiing (in modern terminology): biathlon, slalom, downhill and cross-country skiing. The first world exhibition of various types of skis and ski equipment was opened in Trondheim, in 1862-1863.
In 1877, Norway organized the first skiing society, soon a sports club was opened in Finland. Then the ski clubs began to function in other countries of Europe, Asia and America. The popularity of ski holidays in Norway grew - Holmenkollen Games (1883), Finland - Lahti Ski Games (1922), Sweden - mass cross-country skiing "Vasaloppet" (1922).
In the late 19th century, competitions in skiing began to be held in all countries of the world. Ski specialization was different in different countries. In Norway, cross-country race, jumps and Nordic combined were well developed. In Sweden, that was cross-country race. In Finland and Russia - races on non-mountainous terrain. In the United States, the development of skiing was promoted by Scandinavian settlers. In Japan, skiing under the influence of Austrian coaches received an alpine skiing focus. In 1910, an international ski congress was held in Oslo with the participation of 10 countries. It established the International Ski Commission reorganized into the International Ski Federation (1924).