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Красноярская универсиада 2019 года

2-12 MARCH 2019

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Countdown to winter universiade 2019

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Biathlon

Sport type logo биатлон

Biathlon is a winter sport that combines cross-country skiing and small caliber rifle shooting. The target shooting is done over the distance of 50 meters. The targets have different diameter. Diameter of target for shooting in prone position is 45 mm; diameter of target for shooting in a standing position is 115 mm. The final result in the Biathlon consists of three main components: time of ski race, shooting time and penalty time that athlete receives for inaccurate shooting.

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Sports Disciplines included into the Winter Universiade 2019

Sport type photo биатлон персьют  женщины

Pursuit

Pursuit is the race with a distance of 10 km for women and 12.5 km for men with 4 shooting ranges, which is conducted in accordance with the results of the interval start race (sprint). Athletes complete four shooting ranges taking place in the shooting line in accordance with the order of arrival at the shooting range. Shootings are carried out in prone, prone, standing, standing positions. For each missed target athletes must complete 150 meters penalty loop.

Men
12,5 km
Women
10 km
Sport type photo биатлон масс старт

Mass start

Mass Start is a Biathlon race with a distance of 12, 5 km for women and 15 km for men. 30 best biathletes according to the current World Cup standings participate in the mass start. Athletes start at the same time and complete the distance combined with 4 shooting rounds. First two rounds of shooting are carried out in prone position, the last two rounds - in standing position. Athletes take places in the shooting lines in accordance with the order of arrival at the shooting range. For each missed target athletes must complete 150 meters penalty loop.

Men
15 km
Women
12,5 km
Sport type photo биатлон Спринт

Sprint

The biathletes start with 30 sec. intervals. At the first shooting range the biathletes shoot in the prone position, at the second shooting range they shoot in the standing shooting. When coming to a shooting range the athlete takes a place in a shooting line in accordance with the competition rules. For each missed shot the athlete must complete the distance of a penalty loop which makes 150 m. The first 60 biathletes that finished the race are allowed to compete in the pursuit in accordance with the Protocol.

Men
10 km
Women
7,5 km
Sport type photo биатлон смешанная эстафета

Single MIXED RELAY

Team race, with the participation of 2 athletes (male and female). Participants hand off the baton several times after each pair of shooting ranges. The female athlete starts the race after completing 2 shootings (in prone and standing positions) she hands off the baton to the male athlete. The biathlete completes his distance as well as 2 shootings and again hands off the baton to the female athlete. Male athlete finishes the race after completing 1,5 km. distance. The athlete has three spare rounds for each shooting as in the traditional relay race. For each target left untouched competitors must ski the relevant number of penalty loops which, however, do not make 150 meters as usually but 75 meters.

Men women
7,5 + 6 km
Sport type photo биатлон индивидуальная гонка

Individual

Individual is a race with a distance of 15 km for women and 20 km for men and 4 shooting rounds. The biathletes start in 30 sec. intervals. First and third rounds of shooting are carried out in prone position. Second and fourth rounds are carried out in standing position. The athlete can choose a place at the shooting range according to the competition rule. For each missed shot 1 penalty minute is added to the athlete’s overall race time.

Men
20 km
Women
15 km

Facts

Men’s competitions in biathlon were included in the Olympic Games program since 1960, but women’s competitions were included only since 1992.

Targets in Biathlon were initially made of paper that always lead to endless disputes. It was suggested to hang inflated tire tube behind a metal shield. In 1974, Soviet engineers created targets made of glass which when hit by the rounds did not crumble but flowed like liquid glass. But such a fragility turned out to be very impractical during the transportation.

Interestingly, the loss of a magazine or a sight can not lead to athlete disqualification. The athlete must cross the finish line with a barrel and a trigger mechanism.

In Biathlon, weapons and ammunition are not considered separately, but as one unit. Biathlon rifle weighs not more than 3.5 kg and has cartridges with five rounds each. The speed of the round reaches up to 380 meters per second.

In the early stages of Biathlon, a man silhouette was used as a target, in the center of which was drawn a circle with a diameter of 250 mm (when shooting prone) and 350 mm (when shooting standing). If an athlete missed the circle, a penalty minute was added to his overall race time, and if an athlete missed the silhouette, two penalty minutes were added to his overall race time. Quite often the final results of shooting were assessed only after the finish - it was very difficult to count without modern equipment.

 

History

Sport type photo В Мире3

Biathlon is a sport that combines cross-country skiing and shooting in a challenging changing conditions. The first competitions in the discipline that is quite similar to Biathlon were held in 1767 in Norway. Despite such an early appearance Biathlon has not been widely spread in other countries. The development of modern Biathlon started only at the beginning of the XX century. In the 1920s and 1930s military skiing competitions were widespread in the Red Army. Athletes completed a distance of 50 km with full military pack overcoming various obstacles. Later military ski race with rifles had been changing, becoming closer and closer to sports competitions. Then there were military patrol races - team races with the distance of 30 km with weapons and shooting at the finish. Military patrol competitions were first included in the Olympic Games program as a demonstration competitions in Chamonix 1924.

On August 3, 1948 the International Federation of Modern Pentathlon was established which since 1953 began to be in charge of the Biathlon. In 1954 Biathlon was recognized as a sport by the International Olympic Committee. The first official national Biathlon championship was held in 1957 on the Ukhtusskie Hills near Sverdlovsk with the participation of mostly skiers-racers. The first national Biathlon champion of the Soviet Union was Vladimir Marinychev who won 30 km race combined with shooting. This championship created a great momentum to the development of Biathlon.

In 1958 the first Biathlon World Championship which was the first major international Biathlon competition in history was held in Saalfelden, Austria. Two years later the sport was finally included in the Winter Olympic Games Program. The history of the Biathlon World Cup began in 1978. On November 30, 1992, in the French city of Amelie-Les-Bains-Palalda it was decided to separate the Biathlon from the modern pentathlon. As a result of this separation the new competition formats emerged. 

Since 1993, the official international Biathlon competitions including the World Cup and World Championships are held under the aegis of the International Biathlon Union. In 1994 the first European championship was held in Kontiolahti (Finland) two years later – the first major international competitions in summer Biathlon – the World championship in Hochfilzen (Austria).


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