Красноярская универсиада 2019 года

2-12 MARCH 2019

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    COUNTDOWN TO WINTER UNIVERSIADE 2019

    50d
    -39°C
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    Biathlon

    Biathlon is a winter Olympic sport combining cross-country skiing and rifle shooting. Since 1993, official international competitions in biathlon, including the World Cup and world championships, are held under the auspices of the International Biathlon Union.

    Sports Disciplines included into the Winter Universiade 2019

    Sport type photo Смешанная эстафета

    MIXED RELAY

    This event is different from the ordinary relay race in that the team consists of two women and two men, and they complete their laps in the following sequence —W-W-M-M. The relay team consists of four people, and the distance is different for men and women. Men cover 7.5 km, and women — 6 km.

    Men women
    7,5 + 6 km
    Sport type photo Индивидуальная гонка

    INDIVIDUAL RACE

    Athletes start after each other with the interval from 30 seconds to 1 minute. Men must cover 20 km, and women — 15 km, with four shooting ranges. The first and third shooting are done lying down, and the second and fourth - standing up. The athlete is free to choose any spot on the shooting range they want. Each time an athlete misses a target, 1 minute of penalty time is added to his or her time shown in the race.

    Men
    20 km
    Women
    15 km
    Sport type photo Гонка преследования

    Pursuit race

    Participants start in the sequence and with the intervals with which they finished the sprint race. The length of the race is 12.5 kilometers for men and 10 kilometers for women. The athletes complete four firing rounds; the spots on the shooting range are occupied in accordance with the order of the athletes' arrival at the shooting range. The shooting is done standing up, standing up, lying down, and lying down. Each missed target is punished by a penalty lap 150 m long.

    Men
    12,5 km
    Women
    10 km
    Sport type photo tmpjqfox7

    Mass start

    Thirty best biathlon athletes in the current World Cup standings take part in the group start. The athletes start simultaneously and race for 15 km for men, and 12.5 km for women, with four shooting stages. They shoot at targets first lying down (the first two times), and standing up (the other two times). The athletes take their position at the shooting range in the order in which they arrive at the shooting range. For every missed target they complete a penalty lap of 150 meters.

    Men
    15 km
    Women
    12,5 km
    Sport type photo sport type photo Спринт

    Sprint

    The participants in the sprint race start at intervals from 30 seconds to 1 minute. Men cover 10 km, and women — 7.5 km with two shooting ranges each. The first shooting is done lying down, and the second — standing up; the athletes are free to choose any spot they like on the shooting range. Each time they miss a target, the athlete must complete a 150 meter penalty lap. 60 athletes first to arrive at the finish line then take part in the pursuit race.

    Men
    10 km
    Women
    7,5 km

    Facts

    Biathlon athletes cannot leave the mat with a loaded rifle. There was a case when a biathlon athlete from Norway Lars Berger dropped a charge and stepped off the mat while picking it up. As a result the entire team of Norway was disqualified.
     
    The name of the sport comes from the Latin bis (twice) and the Ancient Greek ἆθλον (competition); this is why biathlon was originally known as modern winter combination.
     
    The summer variety of biathlon involves running from one shooting range to another without rifles. Rifles are found near the shooting ranges.

    History

    Sport type photo В Мире3
    The progenitors of the biathlon are considered military patrol - a type of sport which rules are similar to modern biathlon team race. Today there are many varieties of biathlon which combine cross-country skiing and shooting from a sports bow, snowshoe race and rifle shooting, race for hunting skis race and hunting rifle shooting. Among non-winter types of sport, summer biathlon stands out as it combines running and shooting or roller skis race and shooting.

    International Modern Pentathlon Federation was founded on August 3, 1948 and began to oversee biathlon since 1953. In 1954 International Olympic Committee has recognised biathlon as a sport. In 1958 the first big international biathlon competition took place in the form of a world championship in Saalfelden, Austria. Two years later biathlon was included in an official program of Winter Olympic Games. Since 1978 Biathlon World Cup started to take place. Initially the competition only included men’s races.

    Starting from 1983, women began to compete in the Europe Cup (today: IDU). A year later the first Women’s World Cup was held in Chamonix, France. Since the season of 1987/1988, women’s disciplines were included in the World Cup calendar while starting from the following season, men’s disciplines appear in the Europe Cup calendar. During the same year International Olympic Committee decides to include women’s discipline in the Winter Olympic Games in 1992 in Albertville, France.

    On November 30, 1992 in the French city of Amelie-les-Bains-Palalda, a decision was made to separate biathlon from the modern pentathlon. With the separation of biathlon from modern pentathlon, the format of the competition began expanding. In 1994, the first European Championships took place in the Finnish Kontiolahti, two years later - the first major international competitions in summer biathlon - the World Championships in Austria's Hochfilzen - was held.